What about misrepresentation and smuggling?  

  • “Misrepresentation” is when the product is mislabeled in terms of the declared origin, and can be total or partial: “Total” is when FBS from a less expensive origin is sold as if it were from a more expensive origin; “Partial” is when a less expensive origin and a more expensive origin are mixed e.g. in proportion 49-51, and only the more expensive 51%- origin is declared. This generates an illicit profit for seller, at the expense of the serum users; and may cause companies to unknowingly violate import regulations or product master files. The actual research results and end products are unlikely to be seriously affected, but falsified origins violate government, industry and consumer standards of honesty and traceability.
  • “Smuggling” is a way of misrepresentation, and can be in the form of importing a product under a false description; directly to a final destination, or via third country.


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